Construction Bonds Establishing Secure Connections

This construction bond is the title given to a kind of surety bond that has been made to come into use by investors in projects related to construction. This step has mostly been taken to provide a certain kind of protection against a very severe kind of event taking place that can cause a certain kind of hindrance or failure in the completion of the project, the reason behind it being the insolvency of the builders or the inefficiency of the job to meet ends with the specifications of the contract.

Usually you will notice the existence of three kinds of parties in a construction bond, namely they are the party that has a hand behind the building of the project, the eventual owners and then finally you have the surety company that has got the back of the bond.

As for the types, this kind of bond contains three types; let us have a look at the list:

• THE BID BONDS

In situations where as the expected honor and respect for the bid by the principal which in this case might be the contractor is not met, this bid bond comes into the picture where it provides protection to the owner of the project. The obligee held under the existence of this bond in this case is the owner and he absolutely has the rights to sue the surety and the principal if he wills to in order to establish the enforcement of the bond. In case the principal refuses to extend any kind of honor to the concerned bid, then he takes the responsibility of being liable for any kind of additional costs that might surface.

• THE PERFORMANCE BONDS

This performance bond is used to provide a kind of assurance or rather guarantee by the contractor or the principal. This guarantee talks about the completion of the contract in full accordance with its respective terms. IF under any circumstances, the principal is seen to be facing defaults, the owner holds the right of calling upon the surety to ensure that the contract meets its completion. In that case, the surety will have no other choice but to hand over the contract to a new designated contractor.

• THE PAYMENT BONDS

This is the kind you head to when you need all your payments to be guaranteed, the payments that have been lying under the due tag to subcontractors and some other from the mentioned principal. The subcontractors and the suppliers are the ones who qualify as the beneficiaries for the payment bond. This bond proves to be of a tremendous benefit to the owner especially, the reason being that it comes as a substitute to the mechanic’s liens as a non-payment remedy.

A Quick Introduction To Behavioural Economics

The study of human behaviour, which has traditionally come under the umbrella of psychology, would seem to have little relationship with economics.

But, as we learn more about how the brain works through the dual disciplines of neuroscience and psychology, there is an increasing marriage with the field of economics, in order to better understand how people make financial decisions.

This has evolved considerably in recent years and is an emergent field that deserves a little introduction and explanation.

The traditional view of economics and financial decision-making

It is sometimes forgotten in economics that the field is meant to be about the behaviour of people when making financial decisions.

The traditional economist’s view is that the world is populated by unemotional, logical, decision makers, who always think rationally in drawing their conclusions. This view is underpinned by the understanding that human behaviour displays three key traits: unbounded rationality, unbounded willpower, and unbounded selfishness.

This has always flown in the face of the findings of cognitive and social psychologists, who questioned these assumptions as far back as the 1950s.

With the rise of behavioural neuroscience since the 1980s (especially Kahneman’s work) providing more insight into the workings of the brain, we are now more sure than ever about the role that emotion and bias plays in all decision-making: from simple day-to-day decisions like which dress to wear, through to larger decisions that may affect many people.

Overconfidence and optimism are two examples of behavioural traits that may lead to sub-optimal financial decision-making, and divert from the traditional model used. People have also been shown to make poor decisions, even when they know it’s not for the best, due to a lack of self-control.

So this is where behavioural economics has been able to step in and modify many of the beliefs of the traditional economic views.

What is behavioural economics – and how can it help?

Behavioral economics and behavioral finance study the effects of psychological, social, cognitive, and emotional factors on economic decisions.

This may apply to individuals or institutions, and involves looking at the consequences for market prices, dividends, and resource allocation.

Of the three traits of human behaviour included in the traditional model outlined above, unbounded rationality has received special focus, with new understandings in the field resulting from neuroscience.

Understanding better how people arrive at financial decisions can help in many areas: from personal finance to organisations shaping products and trying to get more customer sign-ups; and from the vagaries of stock market trading through to governments and how they formulate financial legislation.